Single parent households
According to household production theory, the reduction in parental resources for human capital investment in children living in a single-parent family should lower their educational attainment. Empirical findings show that the negative effect of living in a single-parent family (I) increases with the number of years spent in this type of family, (2) is greatest during the preschool years, and (3) is larger for boys than girls.
Free School Meals
Family income can have an impact on children’s attainment, with educational disadvantage linked to lower family income. Typically, levels of deprivation among schools and their pupils are inferred using data on children’s entitlement to free school meals. Free school meal entitlement is a proxy measure (rather than a direct measure) that is frequently used in educational research and policy.
Research links lower socioeconomic status (SES) to lower academic achievement and slower rates of academic progress as compared with higher SES communities.
1 – Higher managerial, administrative and professional occupations
2 – Lower managerial, administrative and professional occupations
3 – Intermediate occupations
4 – Small employers and own account workers
5 – Lower supervisory and technical occupations
6 – Semi-routine occupations
7 – Routine occupations
8 – Never worked and long-term unemployed